Thoughts on Consumer Group of Apache Kafka


The concept of consumer group is intriguring. According to the official documentation of Kafka, one of its main objectives is to achieve message multicast and broadcast. Often it is not an easy concept to grasp at the very beginning. This article will share a few issues and discoveries about consumer group.

A good way to start understanding consumer group is looking at its data structure within ZooKeeper, which is illustrated below.

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You may see each consumer group as a separated world in terms of message consumption. Each consuemr group maintains its own consumer ID’s, partition owners and offsets.


Consumer rebalance happens when consumers join or leave a consumer group or when the topics within a consumer group have new partitions.

Consumer ID uniquely identitfies a consumer. It is generated automatically when a consumer is launched. The source code of its generation is defined in ZookeeperConsumerConnector and shown below.

var consumerUuid : String = null
config.consumerId match {
  case Some(consumerId) // for testing only
  => consumerUuid = consumerId
  case None // generate unique consumerId automatically
  => val uuid = UUID.randomUUID()
  consumerUuid = "%s-%d-%s".format(
    InetAddress.getLocalHost.getHostName, System.currentTimeMillis,
config.groupId + "_" + consumerUuid

If you go into /owners directory and check the owner of a partition, you should find a very similar value to consumer ID. The owner of a topic-partition is defined in the form of [consumerId]-[threadId] in which threadId is used because one partition is meant to be consumed by exactly one thread. In many cases, the threadId is equal to the partition number which the consumer thread owns.

A consumer group is well balanced if each partition inside it is owned by exactly one consumer thread. You may use the instructions from this link to verify the result of consumer rebalance. This tool should work well because I have fixed a bug in VerifyConsumerRebalance.scala in this pull request.

Since version 0.9.0, Kafka has used brokers to coordinate the rebalance process of consumers. I also have thought about it and then wrote this blog.


Broadcast by Kafka is relatively cheap: you just need to put each consumer in different consumer groups, such that the offset of each consumer is different.

Once I read some articles online which suggest use UUID within a consumer group, for example this question from stackoverflow and it has received more than 5 upvotes. Unfortunately I strongly discourage such usage.

Firstly and most importantly, consumer groups are stored as persistent nodes in ZooKeeper. Often consumers need to be shutdown and started, which may not be frequent in commercial environments but is expected to be quite frequent in develop, test and staging phases. As time goes by a huge number of consumer groups nodes shall be accumulated in /consumers node and most of them are not in use. A direct result is it is almost impossible to list out all the consumer groups. ZooKeeper client throws runtime exception because the buffer overflows due to the overwhelming amount of child nodes. The error message is something like:

IOException Packet <len12343123123> is out of range

Even you configure the jute.maxbuffer parameter as some blogs suggest, the chance of receiving a response before your patience runs out is extremely low. I have encountered a situation where /consumers has more than 90,000 child nodes and was unable to list up consumer groups ever since. Another direct result is that some features of ConsumerGroupCommand (used in will fail because internally it lists out all consumer groups.

However, the huge number of consumer groups should not be a problem for the normal operation of Kafka, because the brokers do not need to know all the groups. Even though from version 0.9 onward, consumer rebalance is coordinated by brokers, brokers do not scan groups when deciding which broker coordinates which subset of them. They only manage those consumer which join or leave them. As far as what I have read from GroupCoordinator, brokers do not scan all consumer groups.

Next, UUID is hardly queryable. Its value is generated at runtime and unpredictable. If you wish to describe a consumer group or check its offsets, you will face problems on finding the exact value of it. A workaround is to log its value somewhere.

Last but not the least, group names with UUID in them is brand new every time. Upon the creation of a new consumer group, the value of offsets is determined by offset reset, in other words the setting of auto.offset.reset. No matter the value is smallest or largest, the consumer either consumes many messages repeatedly or skip some messages.

Delete a group

Deleting a consumer group from ZooKeeper is as easy as one single instruction. However, it implies that the offset information will be permantly deleted from ZooKeeper. Do it only when you are 100% sure that the target group will never be reused.

From version 0.9.0 onward, ConsumerGroupCommand introduces a feature to remove consumer groups. Nevertheless, it prohibits the removal of active consumer group by checking the number of children under consuemr registry dicrectory (i.e., /consumers/[group_name]/ids). When you wish to remove a consumer group by a ZooKeeper client, please take notice of active consumers as well.