There are tons of articles talking about setting the number of executors and cores for Spark applications. Hence I am not going to discuss anything about tuning these 2 parameters. Instead I would like to address what does the values of these parameters mean for nodes or containers which are executing your tasks.
The number of cores has no direct relation to physical CPU cores, instead it is a logical counter which determines the number of concurrent tasks that are able to run on one executor. I believe that many articles you can find have already addressed it. However from the perspective of servers or containers that receive tasks from the driver process, the number of cores is able to limit the total number of tasks running on one server/node/container.
Standalone mode is very easy to setup but has few features in scheduling and access control. Though I have touched both standalone and YARN mode, starting from standalone mode is a good choice because the implementation details are easy to inspect, compared to YARN mode where lots of details are handled by YARN.
Let’s start from worker process first. It is recommended that each server only runs one single worker process and I am going to treat it as an assumption.
What are workers and executors?
Each worker is Java process and so is an executor.
If the number of cores is not specified when starting a worker,
the worker will pick the number of physical cores from OS
to be its capacity of cores.
For Spark applications that demand executors,
worker processes spawn executor processes as responses to such requests.
Upon each creation of an executor process,
worker deduct the amount of memory and cores from the total value
class, you can find in method
for each launch of a new executor, the count of used cores is incremented.
Therefore as I said,
the number of memory and cores are more like
logical values rather than the actual amount of resources each executor uses.
What does it look like in deeper details?
The number of memory (controlled by
determines the maximum heap size of executor process,
by forming the
For example if you pass in
when submitting an Spark application,
the executor Java process will include a command line argument as
is the wrapper class around each executor process.
It has an attribute which is an instance of Java
is the main entry point class of executor process
which is able to be observed by using
ps -ef command.
As you dig deeper in the source code,
you should be able to find that each task is a thread submitted
to a thread pool.
spark.executor.cores thus controls the upper limit of concurrent tasks
running in one executor process.
Their resources are shared within one process.
As quite a number of online sources have pointed out,
a big number of cores, say 8,
causes the overhead of context switch to be big and
actually slow down the overall performance.
A number between 2 and 4 (inclusive) is recommended for most Spark applications.
YARN provides a much richer set of features such as (very fine-grained) capacity scheduling, label-based scheduling and access control.
The table below helps you compare and understand standalone and YARN mode side by side.
A major difference between YARN and standalone mode in terms of resource control
is that workers stop spawning new executors
when either of the resources is exhausted.
DefaultResourceCalculator only uses memory to control
the resources used by executors.
As a result sometimes you can see that the available number of vcores on a node
DominantResourceCalculator behaves the same way as workers in standalone mode.
It chooses the dominant resource as the upper limit for resource usage.
An infra perspective
An ideal scenario is where the memory and cores in your cluster are consumed at the same pace. In other words, when memory is used up, cores should be exhausted as well. To achieve better utility of your Hadoop slaves, tune these parameters such that when memory and cores are used up by executors, memory of OS is close to fully utilized and CPU load is slightly below maximum capacity. This advice is given in condition that Spark executors are the dominant processes running on your servers and you should always leave some memory and computational power for other processes than Spark executors and tasks. Your Spark applications might have very strange behavior, sometimes even failures, when the CPU load of Hadoop slaves is extremely high.
These tunings fit very well in the context of running ETL and hosting a data warehouse on a cloud where you are able to purchase and configure the specs of your containers or virtual machines very easily. In contrast, if your NodeManagers (or workers) run on physical servers, there is no easy way to increase or reduce the numbers of CPU cores. Plugging in or our RAM is also not feasible in modern days data centers. I have heard that some companies use Kubernetes to spawn containers to host NodeManagers, when there are huge demands for resources, which can be seen as an alternative way of setting up the specs of nodes.
If you have both IO intensive (such as ETL) and computationally intensive applications (such as data science apps), consider introducing label-based scheduling before tuning.
Epilogue: data engineering in Shopee
As the primary data provider in a leading E-commerce platform operating across Southeast Asia, data engineering team is able to handle TB-level in one ETL flow and this number is still increasing fast. We run Spark jobs on top of an in-house Hadoop cluster whose size is among the top-tier in Singapore as well as SEA region, hopefully.